Ukraine X – XXI. Historical bits

New Serbia (Ukrainian: Нова Сербія, Nova Serbija; Russian: Новая Сербия; Serbian: Нова Србија or Nova Srbija; archaic Serbian name: Нова Сербія or Ново-Сербія; Romanian: Noua Serbie) was a military frontier of Imperial Russia from 1752 to 1764 subordinated directly to the Senat and Military Collegium.

It was mostly located in the territory of present-day Kirovohrad Oblast of Ukraine, although some of its parts were located in the territory of present-day Cherkasy Oblast, Poltava Oblast and Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. The administrative centre of New Serbia was Novomirgorod (literally “New Mirgorod“), which is nowNovomyrhorod, Ukraine.

South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic (PSUAR)[1] was a Ukrainian political project of pro-Viktor Yanukovych politicians and officials in 2004.[2]Initiated on 26 November 2004 by the Luhansk Oblast Council, the project was discontinued the next month by the Donetsk Oblast Council.[3][4] The republic was intended to consist out of nine regions of Ukraine.

The idea on creating of the political entity arose at a session of the Luhansk Oblast Council chaired by Viktor Tikhonov and attended by Oleksandr Yefremov. The session adopted a decision to discontinue subordination to the Luhansk State Regional Administration and create a separate executive committee headed by Oleksandr Yefremov. The session also included for revision by the congress of bodies of local self-government and executive power in Southeastern territories of Ukraine a proposition in organization of working group in creation of tax, payment, banking and finance institutions of the Southeastern territories.[5][clarification needed]

Donetsk Mayor Oleksandr Lukyanchenko, however, stated that no one wanted autonomy, but rather sought to stop Orange Revolution demonstrations going on at the time in Kiev and negotiate a compromise.

The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика, ДВР, tr. Dalnevostochnaya Respublika, DVR; IPA: [dəlʲnʲɪvɐˈstotɕnəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə]), sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of theRussian Far East. Although nominally independent, it was largely controlled by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and its main purpose was to be a buffer state between the RSFSR and the territories occupied by Japan during the Russian Civil War. Its first president was Alexander Krasnoshchyokov.

The Far Eastern Republic occupied the territory of modern Zabaykalsky Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, and Primorsky Krai of Russia (the former Transbaikal and Amur oblasts and Primorsky krai). Its capital was established at Verkhneudinsk (now Ulan-Ude), but in October 1920 it was moved to Chita.

After the fall of Vladivostok on 25 October 1922, the civil war was declared over. Three weeks later, on 15 November 1922, the Far Eastern Republic was merged with the RSFSR.

The Chita Republic (Russian: Читинская республика) was a worker’s republic in Chita, under control of the Soviet of Workers’, Soldiers’ and Cossaks’ from 1905-1906. Chita, a city in eastern Siberia, Russia, and a place of exile for early revolutionaries and combatants of the Russo-Japanese War, was a center for worker unrest in the early 1900s. During the Russian Revolution of 1905 armed revolutionaries under the leadership of the RSDLP headed by Viktor Kurnatovsky[1] took control over the city and declared the Chita Republic in December 1905.[2]

The leaders of the republic tried to organize and establish administration in the city and its outskirts, and the new periodical Zabaykalsky Rabochy was issued in Chita on December 7, 1905, but the republic was fated to fail after the suppression of the uprisings in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Troops loyal to the regime, led by Paul von Rennenkampf and general Miller-Zakomelsky, were sent to suppress the rebellious territory; it was quickly subjugated and Chita was occupied by government troops on 22 January 1906.

“At the beginning of 1906 Kurnatovsky was again arrested and sentenced to death. General Rennenkampf, the pacifier of Siberia, carried the condemned man in his train so that he might witness with his own eyes the executions of workers at every railway station.”[2]

The six leaders of the Chita Republic were shot on the slope of Titovsky sopka. Kurnatovsky’s death sentence was later commuted to life-long exile to Siberia.[2] In the memory of the leaders of the Chita Republic, several central streets of Chita were named after them (Babushkina street, Kurnatovsky street, etc.).

The Russian Republic (Russian: Россiйская республика, tr. Rossiyskaya respublika; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə]) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on 15 March [O.S. 2 March] 1917. Less than eight months later, the Republic was dissolved after the October Revolution on 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917 and the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). Officially, the Republic’s government was the Provisional Government of Russia (Russian: Временное правительство России), although de facto control was split between the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet.


In 1775, the Russian Empress Catherine the Great forcefully liquidated the Zaporizhian Sich and annexed its territory to Novorossiya, thus eliminating the independent rule of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Prince Grigori Potemkin (1739-1791) directed the Russian colonization of the land at the end of 18th century. Catherine the Great granted him the powers of an absolute ruler over the area from 1774.[citation needed]

The spirit and importance of New Russia at this time is aptly captured by the historian Willard Sunderland,

The old steppe was Asian and stateless; the current one was state-determined and claimed for European-Russian civilization. The world of comparison was now even more obviously that of the Western empires. Consequently it was all the more clear that the Russian empire merited its own New Russia to go along with everyone else’s New Spain, New France, and New England. The adoption of the name of New Russia was in fact the most powerful statement imaginable of Russia’s national coming of age.[6]

The 1897 All-Russian Empire Census statistics:[14]

Language Odessa Yekaterinoslav Nikolaev Kherson Sevastopol Mariupol Donetsk district
Russian 198,233 47,140 61,023 27,902 34,014 19,670 273,302
Jewish (sic) 124,511 39,979 17,949 17,162 3,679 4,710 7
Ukrainian 37,925 17,787 7,780 11,591 7,322 3,125 177,376
Polish 17,395 3,418 2,612 1,021 2,753 218 82
German 10,248 1,438 813 426 907 248 2,336
Greek 5,086 161 214 51 1,553 1,590 88
Total Population 403,815 112,839 92,012 59,076 53,595 31,116 455,819

List of founded cities[edit]

Many of the cities that were founded (most of these cities were expansions of older settlements[9]) during the colonial period are major cities today.

Imperial Russian regiments were used to build these cities, at the expense of hundreds of soldiers’ lives.[9]

First wave[edit]

Second wave[edit]

Third wave[edit]

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